Ozone Timeline | Ozone Secretariat
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Ozone Timeline

2018
2025
2016 Kigali Amendment Adopted

Parties adopt the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on 15 October, agreeing to phase down the consumption and production of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

2015 HFC Phase-down Pathway Agreed To

After six years of discussions, parties agree to work under the “Dubai Pathway on Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)” towards an amendment to the Montreal Protocol to phase down HFCs.

2015 Notable Reductions by Developing Countries

Developing countries phase out methyl chloroform and reduce by 10 per cent their production and consumption of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).

2014 All Four Protocol Amendments Ratified

All four Amendments to the Montreal Protocol achieve universal ratification by 197 Parties.

2014 Healing of Ozone Layer Confirmed

The scientific assessment of ozone depletion in 2014 confirms that the ozone layer is healing and will return to pre-1980 levels by mid-century, thanks to actions taken by Parties under the Montreal Protocol.

2014 Réduction de 90% des HCFC dans les pays développés

Les pays développés éliminent 90% de leur production et consommation de HCFC.

2013 Developing Countries Freeze HCFCs

Developing countries freeze the production and consumption of HCFCs.

2013 Skin Cancer Prevention Recognized

A scientific article published in the Photochemistry and Photobiology journal notes that through ozone protection efforts, up to 2 million cases of skin cancer may be prevented each year by 2030.

2010 All Parties Phase Out Fully Hydrogenated ODSs

All parties to the Montreal Protocol phase out the consumption and production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride and other fully hydrogenated ozone depleting substances.

2009 Climate Change Impact Measured

A scientific article published in the PNAS journal notes that the Montreal Protocol has averted more than 135 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions going to the atmosphere, thus significantly contributing to the mitigation of climate change.

2009 Universal Ratification Achieved

The Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol become the first multilateral environmental treaties to achieve universal ratification.

2008 Protocol Adjustments Enter Into Force

Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 2007 in Montreal at the Nineteenth Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

2007 HCFC Phase-out Accelerated

The Montreal Protocol is adjusted to accelerate the phase-out of HCFCs by developing countries.

2006 Largest Antarctic Ozone Hole Recorded

The largest Antarctic ozone hole, averaging 26.6 million square kilometres, is recorded.

2005 Developed Countries Phase Out Methyl Bromide

Developed countries phase out methyl bromide, followed by developing countries by 2015.

2003 Montreal Protocol Wins Praise

Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan terms the Montreal Protocol “perhaps the single most successful international environmental agreement to date.”

2002 Beijing Amendment Enters Into Force

The Beijing Amendment to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1999 in Beijing at the Eleventh Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

2000
2000 Protocol Adjustments Enter Into Force

Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1999 in Beijing at the Eleventh Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

1999 Montreal Amendment Enters Into Force

The Montreal Amendment to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1997 in Montreal at the Ninth Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

1998 Non-Compliance Procedure Amended

The Non-Compliance Procedure is reviewed and amended.

1998 Protocol Adjustments Enter Into Force

Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1997 in Montreal at the Ninth Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

1998 First Developing Country Control Measures Take Effect

The first set of control measures under the Montreal Protocol take effect for developing countries.

1996 Developed Countries Phase Out CFCs

Developed countries phase out production and consumption of CFCs,  followed by developing countries by 2010.

1996 Protocol Adjustments Enter Into Force

Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1995 in Vienna at the Seventh Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

1995 Ozone Work Wins Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize for Chemistry is awarded to Sherwood Rowland, Mario Molina and Paul Crutzen for their pioneering work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone.

1994 Developed Countries Phase Out Halons

Developed countries phase out halons used in products such as fire-fighting equipment, followed by developing countries in 2010.

1994 Copenhagen Amendment Enters Into Force

The Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1992 in Copenhagen at the Fourth Meeting of the Parties enters into force.

1994 International Ozone Day Proclaimed

The UN General Assembly proclaims 16 September as the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, to be observed from 1995 on 16 September.

1993 Permanent Multilateral Fund Established

The Multilateral Fund is established on a permanent basis to replace the Interim Multilateral Fund.

1993 Protocol Adjustments Enter Into Force

Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1992 in Copenhagen at the Fourth Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

1992 Adoption de la Procédure de non-conformité

La Procédure de non-conformité aux dispositions du Protocole de Montréal est adoptée. Création du Comité d’application.

1992 London Amendment Enters Into Force

The London Amendment to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1990 in London at the Second Meeting of the Parties enters into force.

1991 Multilateral Fund Becomes Operational

The Interim Multilateral Fund becomes operational.

1991 Adjustments Enter Into Force

Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1990 in London at the Second Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

1991 Ozone Phase-out Begins

Implementing agencies commence ozone phase-out activities, with funding from the Multilateral Fund.

1990 Interim Non-Compliance Procedure Adopted

The Interim Non-Compliance Procedure for the Montreal Protocol is adopted.

1990 Financial Mechanism Adopted

Parties to the Montreal Protocol decide to amend the Protocol to create a financial mechanism under the Protocol, including the Multilateral Fund.

1989 First Reports Published

First reports by Assessment Panels on the review of control measures under the Montreal Protocol are published, and since, periodic assessments have been published, providing critical information to the Parties, based on available scientific, environmental, technical and economic information.

1989 Protocol Enters Into Force

The Montreal Protocol enters into force on 1 January.

1989 First Control Measures

The first set of control measures under the Montreal Protocol take effect for developed countries.

1988 Convention Enters Into Force

The Vienna Convention enters into force on 22 September.

1986 Montreal Protocol Adoption

The Montreal Protocol is adopted on 16 September. The day is marked globally as the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer since 16 September 1995.

1985 Vienna Convention Signed

The Vienna Convention is signed on 22 March. It was the first Convention of any kind in history to achieve universal endorsement.

1985 Antarctic Hole

British Antarctic Survey scientists report on the recurring springtime ozone hole over Antarctica.

1977 The World Plan of Action

The World Plan of Action on the Ozone Layer adopted by the UNEP Governing Council calls for intensive international research and monitoring of the ozone layer.

1975
1974 Discovery

Scientists Sherry Rowland and Mario Molina in a scientific article published in the journal Nature warn that human-generated CFCs are harming the ozone layer.

1950
1925
1900